PQQ supplements are a type of nutritional supplement that can help provide a range of health benefits. PQQ stands for pyrroloquinoline quinone is a compound that is naturally present in some foods, such as kiwifruit, green peppers, and papaya, and is also produced by certain bacteria. PQQ is sometimes called a “vitamin-like” compound, although it is not technically a vitamin.

They offer various health benefits, including reducing inflammation, boosting energy levels, supporting cognitive function, and protecting the heart. They are also sometimes claimed to help treat or prevent certain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cancer.

PQQ supplements are relatively new nutritional supplements, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they may offer some benefits for people looking to improve their health and well-being.

In this article, we’ll look closely at PQQ supplements, their potential benefits and risks, and their side effects. Let’s begin.

Health Benefits of PQQ Supplements

Most of what we know about PQQ comes from animal studies, and the field is still in its infancy. Although there are human research, it’s unclear how this supplement helps the body. However, they may provide health benefits, according to research. Some of its health benefits are the following.

1. PQQ Supplement as Antioxidant

The production of free radicals is a byproduct of the body’s process of converting food into energy. Too many free radicals, which the body normally can get rid of, can cause damage and contribute to chronic illnesses. Antioxidants neutralize harmful free radicals.

Although PQQ’s precise role in humans is still being debated, its famed antioxidant benefits have made it a popular supplement. Research suggests that PQQ, an antioxidant, is more effective at neutralizing free radicals than vitamin C.

Some researchers also believe that it has a role in preventing damage to nerve cells and participating in other biological processes. While PQQ is an antioxidant, it is uncertain whether or not taking it as a supplement on its own may prevent illness. [1]

2. PQQ Supplement for Fertility

PQQ is a redox cofactor and an antioxidant that has only begun to make a name for itself in fertility supplements. There is evidence that this vitamin-like molecule can stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis. It was also proven to promote the development of new mitochondria. Mitochondria serve as the powerhouse of cells, converting nutrients into usable energy.

There are no human studies of PQQ’s effects on fertility. Although the theory is plausible, animal research has shown positive benefits. [2, 3] PQQ and CoQ10 have been recommended to improve mitochondrial health, energy generation, and sperm and egg quality.

3. PQQ Supplement for COVID

Because PQQ is a powerful antioxidant, redox cofactor, and free radical scavenger that helps maintain a healthy brain and mitochondria, taking it as a supplement may help reduce the negative effects of COVID-19 vaccinations.

Recently, it was shown that PQQ could protect against chronic heart failure by controlling mitochondrial function. Since arrhythmias, thrombosis, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, myocardial damage, and acute coronary syndromes are all linked to COVID-19 infection (and immunization against COVID-19), PQQ may be useful in combating these general and COVID-19-specific problems. [4]

4. PQQ Supplement for Diabetes

Insufficient energy production in the mitochondria contributes to the development of diabetes. PQQ supplements may help improve insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats and reverse mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetes. However, there is currently no proof that PQQ is helpful for diabetes.

5. PQQ Supplement for Inflammation

Emerging evidence suggests that PQQ might reduce inflammation. As a result, these qualities may lessen your danger of developing certain inflammatory diseases. There is some evidence that PQQ can reduce inflammation by reducing blood levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and other indicators. [5]

Although these findings are encouraging, further research is needed to determine whether or not PPQ is effective in treating or preventing inflammatory diseases. As a result, additional study is required.

6. PQQ Supplement for Improving Mental Health

According to research, PQQ increases blood flow to the cerebral cortex. The prefrontal cortex plays an important role in maintaining focus, reasoning, and memory. Additionally, it can protect against the decline of cognitive abilities associated with aging, especially those associated with focus and memory retention. [6]

Therefore, PQQ disodium salt supplementation may help enhance memory, attention, judgment, and cognitive function among those in their middle years and beyond who worry that they are becoming more forgetful as a natural consequence of aging.

7. PQQ Supplement for Liver Support

PQQ may help the liver break down fat and transform it into energy more efficiently. Research suggests it may also heal chronic liver damage, including that caused by fatty liver disease. [7]

8. PQQ Supplement for Mitochondrial Growth

Mitochondria is crucial to our well-being since they generate the vast majority of our cells’ energy (in the form of ATP). PQQ promotes mitochondrial biogenesis (the creation and multiplication of new mitochondria). As mitochondria multiply and strengthen, the cell’s supply of energy, measured in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), rises, leading to enhanced cellular function. A stronger heartbeat results from increased cellular energy, much as increased skin cell energy speeds up the healing of wounds. [8]

9. PQQ Supplement for Nerve Cell Support

PQQ encourages the growth of new neurons. The nerve growth factor (NGF) is a tiny protein essential for the proper development, maturation, and survival of neurons.

According to one study, the amount of NGF produced by PQQ increased by 40. An increase in NGF levels helps maintain the health of the brain and the nerves in the peripheral nervous system and stimulates the regeneration of nerve tissue. [9]

PQQ Supplement Dosage

The recommended dosage of PQQ supplements varies depending on the manufacturer, but most experts recommend taking between 10 and 20 mg daily. However, extrapolations from animal research imply that doses as low as 2mg are relatively bioactive.

PQQ supplements are typically taken in capsule form but can also be found in powder and liquid forms.

How Long Does it Take for PQQ Supplements to Work?

A few individuals may notice the results right away. Some people may have to take PQQ daily or every other day for 2 or 3 months. PQQ is beneficial for people with mitochondrial damage as a side effect of taking anti-lipidemic medications. As a result, your memory will improve, and you’ll have an easier time processing information and making decisions.

Side Effects of PQQ Supplements 

Although PQQ supplements are generally considered safe, there is some concern that they may interact with certain medications. Like its effects, its adverse effects are still unknown because so little research has been done on humans. However, according to toxicity studies, PQQ may cause kidney damage at extremely high levels. [10]

If there is a recommended dosage on the label, stick to it. If you are already using drugs or supplements, including PQQ, you should talk to your doctor before starting this program. Therefore, PQQ supplements should be used cautiously in people taking medication for any reason.

Bottomline: PQQ Supplements Benefits, Side Effects, and Dosages 

PQQ supplements are a new nutritional supplement with many potential benefits. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of these supplements.

PQQ supplements may offer some benefits for people looking to improve their health and well-being, but you should speak with your doctor before taking them.

Disclaimer: This article is only a guide. It does not substitute the advice given by your own healthcare professional. Before making any health-related decision, consult your healthcare professional.

Editorial References and Fact Checking

  • Saihara K, Kamikubo R, Ikemoto K, Uchida K, Akagawa M. Pyrroloquinoline Quinone, a Redox-Active o-Quinone, Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis by Activating the SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling Pathway. Biochemistry. 2017 Dec 19;56(50):6615-6625. doi: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b01185. Epub 2017 Dec 6. PMID: 29185343.
  • Dai Xiuliang, Yi Xiangjiao, Wang Yufeng, Xia Wei, Tao Jianguo, Wu Jun, Miao Dengshun, Chen Li. PQQ Dietary Supplementation Prevents Alkylating Agent-Induced Ovarian Dysfunction in Mice. Frontiers in Endocrinology. Vol 13. 2022. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2022.781404. 10.3389/fendo.2022.781404.
  • D.M. Logsdon, J.N. Knoche, W.B. Schoolcraft, R.L. Krisher. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) supplementation during in vitro culture of murine embryos alters mitochondrial activity but has minimal effects on embryo development. Elsevier Inc. 2018 October 9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.07.501.
  • Zhou Jiabin, Yu Tao, Wu Gujie, Xu Peng, Wang Chen, Su Yiling, Wang Li, Lu Qi. Pyrroloquinoline quinone modulates YAP-related anti-ferroptotic activity to protect against myocardial hypertrophy. Frontiers in Pharmacology. Vol 13. 2022. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2022.977385. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.977385.
  • Nakano M, Takahashi H, Koura S, Chung C, Tafazoli S, Roberts A. Acute and subchronic toxicity studies of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) disodium salt (BioPQQ™) in rats. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;70(1):107-21. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.06.024. Epub 2014 Jul 1. PMID: 24995591.
  • Harris CB, Chowanadisai W, Mishchuk DO, Satre MA, Slupsky CM, Rucker RB. Dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) alters indicators of inflammation and mitochondrial-related metabolism in human subjects. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Dec;24(12):2076-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.07.008. PMID: 24231099.
  • Shiojima Y, Takahashi M, Takahashi R, Moriyama H, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Akanuma M. Effect of Dietary Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt on Cognitive Function in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2021 Aug 20:1-14. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2021.1962770. Epub ahead of print. Erratum in: J Am Nutr Assoc. 2022 Aug 2;:1. PMID: 34415830.
  • Jia D, Duan F, Peng P, Sun L, Ruan Y, Gu J. Pyrroloquinoline-quinone suppresses liver fibrogenesis in mice. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 30;10(3):e0121939. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121939. PMID: 25822822; PMCID: PMC4379100.
  • Chowanadisai W, Bauerly KA, Tchaparian E, Wong A, Cortopassi GA, Rucker RB. Pyrroloquinoline quinone stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis through cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and increased PGC-1alpha expression. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 1;285(1):142-52. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.030130. Epub 2009 Oct 27. PMID: 19861415; PMCID: PMC2804159.
  • Kohji Yamaguchi, Akeri Sasano, Teizi Urakami, Tomoko Tsuji & Kiyosi Kondo (1993) Stimulation of Nerve Growth Factor Production by Pyrroloquinoline Quinone and Its Derivatives inVitro and inVivo, Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 57:7, 1231-1233, DOI: 10.1271/bbb.57.1231.

Shaira is a licensed pharmacist (Bachelor of Pharmacy) and an experienced content writer. She enjoys inspiring and informing her readers through research-backed, comprehensive health content. Shaira draws from her personal experience working with real-life patients in a hospital setting and is currently pursuing her passion in writing.